Thankfully, we’ve got beyond the idea that a woman’s place in literature is to be the hero’s (prospective) love interest, and to scream and break her ankle a lot. However, I don’t think we’re quite at the stage where we’ve got it right yet – this is not surprising. What gets written in books reflects (at least in part) the author’s experiences – whether experiences in life, or what they’ve learned through deliberate research. And society has not yet figured out gender equality. To be fair, this is a pretty big ask, given how many thousands of years has been spent on the patriarchal model. It’s a bit much to expect all of that to be binned in a few decades. We’ve made a lot of progress since my grandmother’s day, when women were expected to give up their jobs when they got married, and it was normal to have the “women’s pay scale” (less) and the “men’s pay scale” (more) for the same job. We can recognise how far we’ve come, while still acknowledging that we’ve some way to go yet.
One of the less obvious issues is, what do we mean by equality?
Some kinds of equality are easy to define: women should get paid the same as men for doing the same job; men should be allowed to be midwives, and women should be allowed to be soldiers. More subtle are things like the value we put on different job roles, and different personal qualities. Traditionally female/caring roles tend to be valued less than traditionally male/aggressive roles. Personal qualities seen as traditionally “feminine”, like being caring, or diplomatic, are seen as less valuable or praiseworthy than traditionally “masculine” characteristics like aggression. When we look at literature, where there is currently an emphasis on “strong female” protagonists, especially female characters who adopt traditionally male roles (e.g. warrior/soldier) it’s interesting to note that these women are often written with so many “male” characteristics, that the impression is (quoting from someone else) “a man without a cock”.
Now, how much of this is just gender-bias, and how much is true? Is there really a psychological difference between males and females which should be written into a character?
Partly, this depends on how much of gender differences in behaviour are genetically determined, and how much is social. If we believe that there is no real psychological difference between men and women, and that all apparent differences are due to social conditioning (which a character may ignore or overcome), this has two consequences:
- Homo sapiens would be just about the only species that doesn’t have differential gender roles. Just about every animal species I can think of has differential gender roles between the sexes – whatever those roles might be. Since animals presumably act mostly on instinct, this must mean that in the majority of cases, females have different instincts to males.
- Gender dysphoria/transgenderism could not exist. You cannot simultaneously declare that there is no difference, psychologically, between males and females and then say that it’s possible for a person to be physically male and psychologically female (or the other way around). The most you can say is that you have a person of one gender who expresses the characteristics demanded of the gender role of the other gender, and societally-dictated roles are so iron-clad that it’s easier for that person to declare themselves to be the other gender, than to say that they are gender A but prefer the things that gender B is supposed to prefer.
So, yes, there’s a lot of societally-determined gender role enforcement going on – but I don’t think that we can say that there is no real psychological difference between men and women.
So, if we accept that men and women are fundamentally different, psychologically, then what does that mean for writing?
For instance, I attended a fantasy convention this year where in all seriousness one of the panel discussions was “Can a female character be an anti-hero?” I think that – given the context – the organisers were doing the “women are nice and good and moral, and men are base beasts controlled by their lusts” angle, but what this actually means is “Do women have the full range of moral and emotional responses that men do?”
Another example of rampant sexism is this article in Writers’ Digest, which defines male anti-heroes by what they do, and what their morality is, and female anti-heroes by their appearance (smudged lipstick), who they have sex with (men she doesn’t know well), and an inability to fit into traditionally female roles. Admittedly, this was published in 2008, but seriously…!
However, sexist these two examples may be, but they do have one thing right: men and women are psychologically different (just not in the way these examples assume). It’s obviously a sliding scale in both cases, with some overlap – but writing a female character does not mean taking the “easy way out” and writing a male character then adding something stereotypically female, like an obsession with shoes. Or crippling self-doubt about her looks or attractiveness. Jack Reacher and James Bond don’t have problems with self-doubt, so why should your heroine? If we accept that women and men are psychologically different, writing a female character who is essentially male (or is a caricature) can be just as sexist as writing only female characters who scream and break their ankles a lot. Equality is not achieved if the result is to obliterate femininity, or present a one-dimensional view of it.
So, how do you write a character who is female, yet does traditionally “male” things, without making her into a caricature, or just “a man without a cock”?
Furthermore, if we accept that women and men are psychologically different, this will affect how they respond to the situations they encounter, and how they relate to the other characters in the book. What is it like to be female when most of your co-workers are male? What are the characteristics of women choose to move into traditionally male roles/jobs?
To be fair, I don’t have the answer to this. My mother would be the first to tell people that I never got the hang of femininity myself, so I’m hardly in a position to explain it to anybody else. My advice would be to go and talk to women who do things similar to your “strong female” protagonist. Or if you don’t know anyone like that, read words written by those women and listen to interviews. At the very least, read about such women – what problems did they encounter, how did they handle it, how does history see them? How did their contemporaries see them?
Here are some suggestions:
Women working in traditionally male roles
Diaries and Memoirs
- Hesitation Kills: A Female Marine Officer’s Combat Experience in Iraq, by Jane Blair. Combat experience in the 2003 Iraq war.
- Eyes Right, by Tracy Crow. Autobiography, chronicling the author’s career and personal life serving in the US Marine Corps.
- An Officer and a Gentlewoman, by Heloise Goodley. Chronicle’s the author’s decision to join the British Army, her time at Sandhurst (officer training) and early days as an officer.
- Rule Number Two: Lessons I Learned in a Combat Hospital, by Dr. Heidi Squier Kraft. Memoir of the author’s experience as a US Navy clinical psychologist during the Iraq war.
Women who dressed as men
Diaries & Memoirs
- The Cavalry Maiden: Journals of a Russian Officer in the Napoleonic Wars, by Nadezhda Durova. Russian woman who abandoned her husband and kids to disguise herself as a man and join the cavalry (although in her journals, she omits the husband and kids).
- Lieutenant Nun: Memoir of a Basque Transvestite in the New World, by Catalina de Erauso. 16th-17th century woman who escaped from a convent as a teenager, disguised herself as a young man, and had a life as an adventurer in the New World.
- Amazons and Military Maids, by Julie Wheelwright. This book started out as a master’s thesis.
- Clothes Make the Man: Female Cross-Dressing in Medieval Europe, by Valerie R. Hotchkiss.
Women who have worked in traditionally male roles (personal experience) and are now authors
- Sandra McDonald: served in the US Navy.
- Elizabeth Moon: served in the US Marine Corps.
- Elizabeth Ann Scarborough: served as a US combat nurse in Vietnam.
- Karen Traviss: former defence correspondent.
- Goodreads list of books written by women military veterans.
- Blog article about female veteran writers.
Women who have researched women in traditionally male roles
- Mary Gentle. Did an MA in War Studies at the University of London, looking at the roles of women in combat/war. Wrote Ash: A Secret History, which is a sort of weird alternate-history/fantasy/sci-fi novel/series about a female mercenary, starting in 15th century Europe.
Fiction written by men or women who have not performed those roles, about women in traditionally male roles
These authors don’t have personal experience (as far as I know) of being a woman in a traditionally male role, but either I’ve read their stuff and I think it’s well done, or someone else has mentioned it as being good.
- Be Safe I Love You, by Cara Hoffman.
- Guns of the Dawn, by Adrian Tchaikovsky.
- The Nadia Stafford series, by Kelley Armstrong.
I intend to add to this list, as and when I can. If you have additions you would like to suggest, please comment!